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Avatar – is a graphical or textual representation of a user, character, or entity in a gaming environment. It acts as the user’s proxy in the virtual world.


  1. Static Avatars: Pre-designed characters provided by the game, with limited or no customization options.
  2. Dynamic Avatars: Characters that players can customize extensively, influencing not only the visual appearance but also potentially the skills, attributes, and behaviors within the game.

Avatar (Esports and Game Development): A Legal Overview

An avatar, within the vibrant domains of esports and game development, represents more than just a digital form or figure. It is a dynamic digital representation of a player or character within a video game, ranging from straightforward character designs to complex entities endowed with rich backstories and distinct abilities. Avatars serve as the player’s persona in the digital realm, often customizable to mirror individual preferences and stylistic inclinations. This customization allows players to immerse themselves more deeply into the virtual world, enhancing their gaming experience. The legal landscape that governs these digital personas is intricate, encompassing issues such as intellectual property rights, privacy, personality rights, and various contractual nuances. This comprehensive overview delves into these crucial aspects, providing clarity on the multifaceted legal dimensions involved.

Intellectual property rights

Avatars, as creations of the gaming industry, are protected under copyright law, regarded as original works of authorship crafted by game developers. Traditionally, the intellectual property rights to an avatar—including its design, appearance, and unique characteristics—are held by the game developer or the publisher. However, any customizations or modifications made by players that are original enough can be deemed derivative works, thereby entailing a separate layer of protection.

This conventional model contrasts with emerging digital spaces like metaverses, where the approach to ownership shifts significantly. In such environments, users often retain ownership over their digital assets, including avatars. This distinction introduces a complex layer of rights distribution that can influence everything from the avatar’s commercial use to its portability across different virtual platforms.

Privacy and Data Protection

The intersection of avatars and privacy in esports and game development is a critical concern, given the extensive amount of personal data these digital personas can accumulate and represent. Avatars often capture detailed information about a player’s preferences, behaviors, and interactions within the game, which necessitates careful handling to ensure privacy and compliance with applicable laws.

When players interact within the game using their avatars, they generate a vast array of data. This data can include, but is not limited to, player behavior analytics, choices made during customization, in-game purchases, and communication records. Each of these data points can reveal significant personal information about the user, potentially including biometric or geographical data depending on the nature of the game. Managing this personal data requires adherence to various privacy regulations which differ by region for instance General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR)[1] in the European Union or California Consumer Privacy Act (CCPA)[2] in California.


Game developers and esports organizations must implement robust mechanisms to obtain consent from players for the collection and use of their data. This often involves clear and comprehensive privacy policies that detail the types of data collected, the purpose of collection, data storage practices, and the rights available to players. Additionally, transparency about data sharing with third parties, if any, is crucial.

Personality Rights

Personality rights, also known as the right of publicity, involve the legal right of an individual to control the commercial use of their identity, such as their name, image, and likeness. In the context of avatars in esports and game development, these rights are particularly relevant when avatars either deliberately or inadvertently resemble real people. This resemblance can create complex legal issues, especially if an avatar that mirrors a real person’s appearance is used for commercial purposes without their consent.

Contractual Issues

In professional esports, the use of avatars is often governed by contractual agreements. These contracts can dictate terms regarding the use, sponsorship, and commercial rights associated with a player’s avatar, highlighting the need for clear terms and understanding of legal rights and obligations by all parties involved.

Legal Disputes and Enforcement

Disputes over avatars typically involve copyright infringement, violation of personality rights, and breaches of contract. Enforcement of legal rights can be complex, especially in international arenas where laws vary significantly. Legal actions may involve cease and desist orders, litigation, or arbitration, depending on the jurisdiction and specific circumstances of the case.

[1] Regulation (EU) 2016/679 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 April 2016 on the protection of natural persons with regard to the processing of personal data and on the free movement of such data, and repealing Directive 95/46/EC (General Data Protection Regulation) [2016] OJ L 119/1.




  • Maciej Niezgoda

    Maciej Niezgoda is an attorney at law. He provides legal assistance mainly to clients in the video game and new technologies industries. He specializes in new technology law, copyright law, AI and data protection law. He is a PhD student at the Doctoral School of the University of Silesia in Katowice.

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