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Women in Esports – Current Landscape and Ways to Enhance their Successful Participation



At this year’s gamescom from 23-27 August, 320,000 video gaming enthusiasts flocked to the exhibition halls of Cologne, Germany. For developers, publishers and all other stakeholders in the gaming industry, the world’s largest gaming fair is an ideal opportunity to present new products and developments to a broad audience. Time to take a closer look at the role of women in the competitive pinnacle of gaming: esports.

The esports industry’s global market revenue has been subject to constant and significant growth in recent years. A continuous development of the industry is expected in the future with media rights and advertisement being the main drivers.[1]  It is forecasted to grow to USD1.62 billion in 2024 from close to USD1.38 billion in 2022.[2] The increase in revenue goes hand in hand with more and more viewers watching their favourite games being played on a professional level. The global esports audience comprising enthusiasts and occasional viewers passed the half-a-billion mark in 2022 and is expected to grow beyond 575 million viewers in 2024.[3

These figures show that esports has developed significant economic and cultural weight. Also due to its great future potential, esports constitutes an investment opportunity of increasing importance for rights holder, sponsors and brands. 

Esports – A distinctive field 

In order to carve out the situation of women in esports, it must be differentiated from video gaming on a grassroot level and game-related live streaming by individuals (i.e. streamers) via platforms such as Twitch. Gaming on a grassroot level concerns video gaming for people’s own entertainment purposes across all gaming platforms. The share of women gamers on this basic level is almost equal to the share of men gamers. In Germany, for example, in 2022 48% percent of gamers were women and 52% were men.[4] The same figures emerge when looking at the distribution of video gamers by gender in the USA.[5]

Game-related live streaming concerns gameplay of video games being streamed to an audience by individual streamers. The focus is not on professional competition but on entertainment for viewers. Game-related live streaming is largely personality- and community-based. Revenue of streamers is not driven by price money but mainly by sponsored advertisement and merchandising. In this sector, there are numerous female gaming influencers and personalities running successful game-related streams, as Pokimane and AriGameplays on Twitch. 


The term “esports”, in contrast, represents the professional side of video gaming in which individual players and/or teams compete against each other on a regional, national or international level. The degree of professionalization in esports should not be underestimated. It can be compared to professional athletes and teams in traditional sports. Behind the esports players and teams are professional organizations facilitating and maximizing player performance, including nutritional advice and physical training. The German First League Football Club “RB Leipzig” for example has its own esports League “RBLZ Gaming” competing successful in virtual football tournaments and has a woman in its team.

Players and teams in esports compete in organized competitions and earn considerable sums through price money and sponsoring. Amongst the biggest and most lucrative games in esports are DOTA 2Counter-Strike: Global Offensive and League of Legends (LoL). Their tournaments fill entire arenas and are broadcasted to a global audience. The highest-profile esports tournament so far has been DOTA 2’s “The International 2021” with a price pool of USD 40 million. 

The situation of women in esports

In theory, esports has no angle that would speak against equal pay and mixed competition between men and women. Traditional sports are mostly characterized by gender segregation. In esports, physical attributes such as height, endurance or power have no notable relevance that would cause differences in men’s and women’s performances or prospects of success. From a biological standpoint, there are no differences between the sexes in the reaction times or the fine motor skills which are the most important physical attributes in esports. A core argument used to explain the gender pay gap in traditional sports has no merit in the realm of esports: the supposed higher attractiveness of men’s sports due to higher physical performance that in turn would lead to increased revenue from media rights, sponsoring and merchandising and thus justify inequal pay-outs.

Despite the biologically equal prerequisites, there is a striking lack of female professionals in esports. It is vividly reflected in the female share in esports earnings. DOTA 2 currently is the most lucrative game for esports players. According to the BBC, only 0.002% (USD 6,300) of the USD 235 million awarded in DOTA 2 competitions up to 2021 has been won by women.[6] This is to remain largely unchanged as, at the time of writing, none of the teams that according to current standings are likely to compete in this year’s DOTA 2 World Championship (“The International 2023”) include a woman.[7] Based on data gathered by, Sasha “Scarlett” Hoystin, a Canadian playing Star Craft II, is currently the top female player who won the most price money in esports overall (USD 453,507.57).[8] In the list of players with the highest overall earnings, she is ranked 487.[9] The next woman Li Xiao Meng (“Liooon”) on the list with earnings of USD 241.510,00 does not rank among the top 1000 overall. So currently there is only one woman in the top 1000 of esports players with the highest overall earnings in the world. Apart from this marginal female share in esports’ price money distribution, the female underrepresentation at the highest level also makes it difficult for female players to acquire additional revenue through sponsoring and other brand partnerships. Currently, they largely miss out on a chance of capitalizing on esports’ rapid growth.

Given the (biologically) equal starting position for men and women, the question arises as to what reasons prevent female players to reach the professional side of gaming. Upon pursuing this question, one quickly notices that there is a lack of robust and qualitative research on this matter. We therefore can only touch upon possible reasons that are frequently put forward but can hardly be validated. 


A simple answer to the above question would be a general lack of female interest in esports. This, however, cannot be ascertained. The female interest appears to be profound as the female audience share already is significant. In Europe, for example, 37% of the esports audience in 2022 was female.[10] Given the high share of women engaging in video games, the number of female viewers can be expected to grow. The reasons thus seem to lie deeper. In relevant articles and on platforms it is often claimed that a hostile environment for women is created in gaming and esports. The field would be embossed by sexism, harassment, bullying and cultural bias. This is seen to be coupled with the unfounded belief that women perform worse than men in esports. This would lead to a reduced likelihood of entering the path of becoming professional esports players and breaking through as competitive players in comparison to men. Another reason could be that the tendency for women to become more and more engaged in gaming and esports is a development of rather recent years that goes hand in hand with the general societal development towards gender-neutrality. (Male) players who are now successful in esports likely started playing at a young age at a time when gaming was still seen as an activity mainly reserved to boys. They thus may have had a head start on the way to becoming a professional player. It is therefore quite possible that the situation of women will change in the years to come, when female players who have grown up with gaming reach a higher age. And finally, due to the current underrepresentation of women in esports, role models that encourage more women to pursue esports are lacking.  

Measures to promote women in esports

The lack of female representation in professional gaming has not gone unnoticed by the stakeholders in the industry. There are measures in place which aim at increasing female participation. An answer has been the establishment of female-only esports teams, tournaments and leagues. ESL Gaming, one of the largest esports companies in the world, for example, launched a separate “Counter Strike: Global Offensive” women’s league in 2021. In Germany, the Deutsche Telekom, SK Gaming and the not-for-profit esports player foundation (epf) have founded the “Equal esports Initiative” that introduced this year the “Equal Esports Cup”, a LoL Tournament Series for women and non-binary persons with the final this September in Cologne. While such approaches are welcomed, they are also criticized for emphasizing gender segregation, while the actual goal is seen in a coexistence of women and men in esports. In any case, such offerings promote the recognition of female players and give them a platform to showcase their skills on a (semi-)professional level. They can provide a basis for attracting more women to esports and also enable them to participate financially in future growth.

As an alternative to parallel tournament structures for women, female players or female teams could be guaranteed spots in high-profile tournaments via wildcards or sponsor exemptions. Such direct interference in competitions, however, would bear the risk of causing serious backlash in the relevant gaming communities. From the perspective of many viewers, the focus would no longer be on performance but on artificially diversifying competition. A lack of acceptance could potentially harm the goal of promoting female players instead of doing it any good. Stakeholders will also be wary of such repercussions and reluctant to implement measures making participation of female players or teams mandatory. 

A more sustainable way to increase female representation therefore would be to facilitate their entry into competitive gaming and esports competitions. Formula 1, for example, introduced a female-only qualification route (“women’s wildcard”) for the F1 Esports Series Pro Exhibition in 2021 where F1 esports teams were scouting talent to add to their rosters for the next season of the Pro Championship.[11] This gave female players an opportunity to be noticed and selected without being guaranteed participation in the actual esports competition. Similar qualification routes dedicated to female players or female teams could be implemented for other major esports competitions. They would constitute a mitigating approach which would enable women to prevail due to their performance and skill set.

Desirable changes

Stakeholders in the esports industry should ensure that women have a real chance to assert themselves in mixed competitions based on their performance and skill set. This requires more actively promoting entry and advancement opportunities for women in esports. The more role models are available the better for a further advancement of women in esports. Finally, the esports community should tackle any prejudices against participating women and society in general should be more open to foster interested girls and women in gaming, including male dominated games like first-person shooters. Another way to encourage more women participation in esports tournaments could be to run more prominent tournaments for games that are known to be more attractive to women, for example Speedruns could be considered for esports tournaments. The overall goal should be to give women a perspective to equally participate in the boom of esports and to prevent a development of “esports” and “women’s esports” as segregated worlds with different economic outlooks. 


Image source: G2 Esports

  1. Fortune Business Insights, ‘Market Research Report’ (2023) < > accessed 09 August 2023. ↩︎
  2. Newzoo, ‘Global Esports & Live Streaming Market Report’ (2022) < > accessed 09 August 2023. ↩︎
  3. Newzoo, ‘Global Esports & Live Streaming Market Report’ (2021) < > accessed 09 August 2023. ↩︎
  4. game – Verband der deutschen Games-Branche, ‘Jahresreport der deutschen Games-Branche’ (2022) p. 10. ↩︎
  5. Statista, ‘Distribution of video gamers in the United States from 2006 to 2022 by gender’ (2022) < > accessed 09 August 2023. ↩︎
  6. > accessed 09 August 2023. ↩︎
  7. > accessed 31 August 2023. ↩︎
  8. < > accessed 31 August 2023. ↩︎
  9. > accessed 31 August 2023. ↩︎
  10. Deloitte, ‘Let’s Play! 2022 – The European esports market’ (2022) p. 13. ↩︎
  11. > accessed 09 August 2023. ↩︎


  • Saskia Lais-Jansen

    Saskia Lais advises German and international corporate clients on copyright-related matters and has vast experience in trademark and design right issues, as well as unfair competition questions, especially in the sector of prize draws/raffles and misleading advertisement. In addition, Saskia deals with youth protection issues in regards to advertisement and marketing tools addressed to minors. She has broad knowledge of distribution and agency agreements. She is also very familiar with product liability issues and checking compliance with general terms and conditions.


Esports Washing: A New Chapter in Russian Esports with the Formation of ARKI

The landscape of Russian esports is undergoing a transformative shift with the formation of the Cyber Sports Infrastructure Development Association (ARKI), another initiative for ‘esports washing’. Industry giants, led by Langame, a developer of specialized software for cyber clubs, are uniting to advance the sector. Dmitry Lukin, the founder of Langame, and Pavel Golubev, the company head, have pioneered this initiative.



Esports Washing in Russia ARKI | ELN

A Unified Front in Russian Esports

The Russian esports industry is witnessing a significant transformation and another step in esports washing as major players unite to form the Cyber Sports Infrastructure Development Association (ARKI). Spearheaded by Langame, a developer of specialized software for cyber clubs, ARKI promises to redefine the esports landscape in Russia.

Founded by Langame’s founder, Dmitry Lukin, and company head Pavel Golubev, ARKI is already gaining traction with prominent cyber club networks like Colizeum, True Gamers, and CyberX, as well as EZ Katka and F5 Cyber Sports Center, joining as members. This move signifies a united effort to bolster the industry’s growth and address the challenges it faces, including taxation and regulatory recognition.

The establishment of ARKI marks an era of proactive engagement for the industry. With 460 clubs under Colizeum, 114 arenas across Russia and CIS under True Gamers, and 220 clubs with CyberX, the association commands a significant presence in the esports sector. ARKI is not just for club networks but is open to hardware suppliers, software developers, and representatives from gaming industries and esports organizations, reflecting a comprehensive approach to industry challenges.

Navigating the Tax Jungle

One of ARKI’s primary goals is to advocate for the inclusion of cyber clubs and esports arenas in the patent tax system, a move that would simplify the tax process by allowing clubs to pay a fixed sum based on their specific type and location of operations. This system could replace the traditional tax declaration and payment process, offering a streamlined approach beneficial for smaller entities.

“The introduction of a tax system tailored for esports arenas and cyber clubs could significantly ease the bureaucratic burden these entities currently face,”

a Langame spokesperson explained.


Redefining Esports as a Sport

In addition to tax reform, ARKI aims to work on the legislative recognition of computer clubs and esports arenas as official sports venues. This recognition could transform how these entities operate and are perceived within the wider sports and recreational sectors.

The move towards forming ARKI is seen as a logical step in the evolution of the esports industry, which has already surpassed movie theaters in revenue generation. Many clubs are privately owned and categorize their revenue under equipment rental, which aligns with ARKI’s interest in patent tax utilization, indicating a strategic move towards financial optimization and regulatory compliance.

Moreover, Vasily Ovchinnikov, head of the Video Game Industry Development Organization, supports this initiative, highlighting its potential to dismantle barriers and foster growth. He notes the complex nature of the current system where computer clubs are taxed similarly to entertainment segments, which ARKI could address through its advocacy for beneficial tax positions and legislative recognition.

Esports vs. Traditional Entertainment: A Financial Juggernaut

The formation of ARKI is not merely a business maneuver but a reflection of the esports industry’s growth trajectory, which now outpaces traditional cinema in terms of revenue.

“The esports industry has evolved from a niche entertainment sector to a major economic entity, necessitating a formal structure like ARKI to advocate for its interests,”

noted Vasily Ovchinnikov, head of the Video Game Industry Development Organization. However, this rapid growth has not been without its challenges. The existing tax regime, tailored more towards general entertainment than competitive gaming, imposes a significant financial burden on club owners, who often categorize their revenues under equipment rental to mitigate tax liabilities.


Interestingly, the Russian Esports Federation (RESF) of Russia, established in 2016, has also been active in promoting the interests of the industry, achieving recognition of esports as an official discipline, and advocating for benefits such as military service deferments for esports athletes. However, ARKI’s formation signifies a broader coalition aiming to enhance the structural and regulatory framework of the esports industry further.

Sporting Venue or Recreational Facility? The Ongoing Debate

The distinction between recreational and sporting venues becomes particularly poignant in locations where alcohol sales can coexist with esports activities, as in shopping centers.

“The coexistence of alcohol sales and esports competitions in the same venues complicates their classification and requires careful regulatory consideration,”

Ovchinnikov added. This situation necessitates a clear regulatory framework to distinguish between purely entertainment-oriented clubs and those that genuinely foster competitive esports.

The Future of Russian Esports

For the industry, the stakes are high, and the potential is immense. With esports clubs seeing a 15% revenue increase in 2023 alone, reaching 23 billion rubles, the formation of ARKI could be the cornerstone of a new developmental phase for Russian esports. This unified approach could not only address immediate financial and regulatory challenges but also pave the way for a sustainable and recognized esports ecosystem in Russia.

Russia’s Esports Strategy

While the strategic formation of ARKI highlights the potential of Russian esports, it also casts a light on a broader tactic often seen in Russian governance: leveraging emerging industries like esports to project a modern, technologically advanced image while possibly overlooking deeper systemic issues such as regulation and international perception. This ‘esports washing’ raises questions about the sincerity of efforts to nurture the industry organically versus using it as a facade for enhancing national prestige.


With material from:


  • Leonid Shmatenko

    Leonid Shmatenko is part of Eversheds Sutherlands’ data protection and technology law team. He has vast experience in regulatory and general issues in the areas of eSports and Blockchain. He advises eSports associations and clubs on all legal issues, advises and supports crypto startups in all matters from planning, preparation to execution of private and public token offerings (so-called Initial Coin Offerings or ICOs). Furthermore, Leonid Shmatenko specializes in international arbitration and has participated in several arbitration proceedings (SAC, ICC, DIS, UNCITRAL, ICSID, ad hoc) as a party representative and secretary of the tribunal. Leonid Shmatenko studied at the Heinrich Heine University in Düsseldorf and is currently pursuing a PhD in international law. After his successful first state examination (2011), he completed his legal clerkship, inter alia, at the German Embassy in Lima and within international law firms in Düsseldorf and Paris. He passed the second state examination in 2015. He is an external lecturer at the National Law University of Ukraine “Yaroslav Mudryi”, where he teaches International Investment Law. He is admitted to the Bar in Switzerland and Germany. Before joining Eversheds Sutherland, Leonid Shmatenko worked as an attorney at leading law firms in Geneva, Munich and Paris.

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ELN Announcement: Launch of Esports Legal Wiki and a Call for Papers



ELN Announcement Launch of Esports Legal Wiki

We are thrilled to announce the official launch of the Esports Legal Wiki, a groundbreaking new resource in the field of esports law, edited by Dr Despoina Farmaki and Leonid Shmatenko. This comprehensive digital encyclopedia features over 60 detailed legal definitions and analyses authored by a distinguished panel of experts in the esports legal domain. We extend our heartfelt thanks to the following contributors for their invaluable insights and expertise:

Esports Legal News (ELN) is also excited to promote Dr. Despoina Farmaki to Chief Academic Officer. Dr. Farmaki, who has played a pivotal role in the development of the Esports Legal Wiki, will not only oversee the finalization of this extensive project but will also spearhead an exciting new academic initiative set to be unveiled in the first quarter of 2025.

We invite scholars and practitioners from around the world to contribute to the Esports Legal Wiki. Your submissions will help ensure that this platform remains a cutting-edge, authoritative source for legal professionals, scholars, and anyone interested in the legal aspects of esports.

To participate, please refer to the attached call for papers and submission guidelines. Your contributions are crucial to the success and continual growth of this essential legal resource.

Thank you to all our contributors and supporters for making this project possible. We look forward to your ongoing engagement and to revealing further innovations in the near future.

If you wish to cite the Esports Legal Wiki in your scholarly works, the suggested citation is: “Author’s name, “Term”, in: Farmaki/Shmatenko (eds.), ELN Esports Legal Wiki, Link to Wiki entry, Last updated.”



  • Leonid Shmatenko

    Leonid Shmatenko is part of Eversheds Sutherlands’ data protection and technology law team. He has vast experience in regulatory and general issues in the areas of eSports and Blockchain. He advises eSports associations and clubs on all legal issues, advises and supports crypto startups in all matters from planning, preparation to execution of private and public token offerings (so-called Initial Coin Offerings or ICOs). Furthermore, Leonid Shmatenko specializes in international arbitration and has participated in several arbitration proceedings (SAC, ICC, DIS, UNCITRAL, ICSID, ad hoc) as a party representative and secretary of the tribunal. Leonid Shmatenko studied at the Heinrich Heine University in Düsseldorf and is currently pursuing a PhD in international law. After his successful first state examination (2011), he completed his legal clerkship, inter alia, at the German Embassy in Lima and within international law firms in Düsseldorf and Paris. He passed the second state examination in 2015. He is an external lecturer at the National Law University of Ukraine “Yaroslav Mudryi”, where he teaches International Investment Law. He is admitted to the Bar in Switzerland and Germany. Before joining Eversheds Sutherland, Leonid Shmatenko worked as an attorney at leading law firms in Geneva, Munich and Paris.

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Takaze’s Take: Free the Agents – Sexism and Misogyny in the Esports Business

This new format of an article (Takaze’s Take) explains how an eathlete can file a discrimination lawsuit in the USA. This article also discusses women in sports.



Takaze's Take: Free the Agents

On 28 February 2024, Josefine Jensen, a member of Astralis’ Women’s Counter-Strike team, took a stand. She Xed a letter to Valve Corporation, demanding a change in their business practices. Specifically, she urged them to make female agent skins free to use in Counter-Strike. This issue, she believes, is not just about Skins but about the deep-rooted sexism and misogyny that pervades the esports industry. 

The esports world has a rich history of mistreating women.[1] However, women in America do have a way to counterattack. For example, suppose the misandrist is someone you work with. In that case, you can file a Charge of Discrimination with the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC).[2] 

The EEOC enforces “federal laws that make it illegal to discriminate against a job applicant or an employee because of the person’s race, color, religion, sex, national origin, age, disability, or genetic information.”[3] If you sign and file a Charge of Discrimination, you are “asserting that an employer, union or labor organization engaged in employment discrimination.”[4] You must file a Charge of Discrimination with the EEOC before you can sue your employer for discrimination.

Takaze’s Take

Filing a Charge of Discrimination is not your only option. In fact, as the war against Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion (DEI) intensifies, the EEOC may be unable to protect you. Unfortunately, your enemies intend to compel the EEOC to enforce the status quo.[5] If DEI is important to you, then a showdown with your adversaries may be inevitable. 

Mr. Monopoly’s Wisdom

Your opponents view DEI as a zero-sum game. Fear and insecurities are at the center of the conflict.[6] We ought to celebrate your accomplishments.[7] Instead, your adversaries recognize that these fears and insecurities make their followers susceptible to viewing your success as a threat.[8] Mr. Monopoly can help you understand the schism. Until recently, your enemies owned the entire board. Their rule was ruthless and absolute. Over time, your foes’ forefathers were forced to make half-hearted concessions. Your forebears were given Mediterranean Avenue—Connecticut Avenue. Their adversaries expected them to be content. 

Those whose shoulders you stand upon continued to press the issue. You landed on Atlantic Avenue, and your sights are set on Boardwalk. The last seven to eight years in American politics should have clarified one thing for you: Your enemies consider your desire to own Boardwalk wholly unacceptable. 


Their Strategy

Your enemies are clever.[9] They copied the tactics of Civil Rights activists.[10] Now, your opponents are erasing them from your history books.[11] Their recent legislative and judicial victories show that your adversaries are reaping the rewards of their efforts.[12] Your enemies likely believe their victory will be absolute if they can expunge the history of your forebears.

The Counter-Strike

The sports and entertainment worlds have not acquiesced to your enemies’ demands.[13] As we enter the next phase of the streaming wars, alienating marginalized groups is a surefire way to lose.[14] You can leverage the pursuit of profits to your advantage. For example, working at the FDIC was a never-ending party until the Wall Street Journal arrived.[15]The author hopes that soon, every woman will feel safe in the workplace. Perhaps your enemies feel secure because the esports world is not mainstream. The author hopes you show them that they are misreading the tea leaves.

The spotlight is shining brightly upon the women’s sports universe. The WNBA and ESPN plan to capitalize on Caitlin Clark and Angel Reese’s fame.[16] The NWSL is expanding.[17] Private equity firms are investing heavily in the sports world.[18] The NFL is arriving fashionably late to the dance, but their dance card is undoubtedly full.[19] The esports world claims to be unhappy with its dependence upon the Saudis, and the business model needs to be tweaked.[20]Investors not chosen by the major sports leagues will need a date. If DEI is important to you, now may be the time to press the issue. 

Advance your token to Boardwalk.

Image source: Netcompany


[1] Ajay Rose, Inside the World of Female esports: “It’s a Scary Space for Women’, The Athletic (Jul. 23, 2023),

[2] Filing a Charge of Discrimination with the EEOC (last visited Apr. 7, 2024).  

[3] Overview (last visited Apr. 7, 2024). 

[4] Id.

[5] Robert Draper, America First Legal, a Trump-Aligned Group, Is Spoiling for a Fight, N.Y. Times (Mar. 21, 2024),


[6] Why Young Men and Women Are Drifting Apart, The Economist (Mar. 13, 2024), Sense of the Gulf Between Young Men and Women, The Economist (Mar. 14, 2024),

[7] Aparna Rae, White Men’s Role in Advancing Equity and Inclusion, Forbes (Mar. 14, 2024),

[8] Nicquel Terry Ellis & Catherine Thorbecke, DEI Efforts are Under Siege. Here’s What Experts Say is at Stake, CNN (Jan. 11, 2024),

[9] Nicholas Confessore, ‘America is Under Attack’: Inside the Anti-D.E.I. Crusade, N.Y. Times (Jan. 20, 2024),; Meg Little Reilly, Anti-DEI Bills Rely on Vague Language and Self-Censorship, Forbes (Mar. 5, 2024),

[10] James Devitt, Bayard Rustin’s Blueprint for Activism—and Perhaps Progress (last visited Apr. 7, 2024); Adam Gopnik, Eclipsed in His Era, Bayard Rustin Gets to Shine in Ours, The New Yorker (Nov. 6, 2023),


[11] Taifa Natalee Alexander, Tracking the Attack on Critical Race Theory in Education, U.S. News (Apr. 11, 2023),;  Daniel Golden, Muzzled by DeSantis, Critical Race Theory Professors Cancel Courses or Modify Their Teaching, ProPublica (Jan. 3, 2023),; Myles Hollingsworth, AP African American Studies and Critical Race Theory Ban in Florida, The Crisis (July 24, 2023),;  David Bernstein, Is Opposition to Critical Race Theory Correlated With Ignorance of Critical Race Theory?, Reason (Apr. 2, 2024),

[12] Jeff Green & Simone Foxman, Why Corporate America Has a Diversity Problem, Bloomberg (Mar. 14, 2024),

[13] Bill King, The Pushback on DEI, Sports Business Journal (Mar. 11, 2024),; Jeremy W. Peters & Brooks Barnes, The Oscars Now Have D.E.I. Rules, But Some Say It’s Just a Performance, N.Y. Times (Mar. 10, 2024),

[14] Dr. Darnell Hunt & Dr. Ana-Christina Ramon, Diverse Audiences Prop Up A Struggling Theatrical Industry and Demand Diversity on Screen, Forbes (Mar. 7, 2024),

[15] Rebecca Ballhaus, ‘What the Hell is Going on at the FDIC?’, The Wall Street Journal (Jan. 10, 2024),


[16] Jacob Feldman, WNBA Has Big Plans to Ride Women’s Basketball Momentum, Sportico (Apr. 4, 2024),; Tom Friend, Engelbert: Clark-Reese Could be the New Bird-Magic, Sports Business Journal (Mar. 3, 2024),

[17] Cleveland Soccer Group Announces 12k Season-Ticket Pledges for Possible NWSL Expansion Franchise, Sports Business Journal (Apr. 4, 2024), Enters 2024 Campaign with Renewed Hope Amid Offseason Growth, Sports Business Journal (Mar. 15, 2024),

[18] Arctos Partners Raises $4.1B for Investments in Sports, Sports Business Journal (Apr. 2, 2024),; Abby Schultz, The Wealthy are Turning to Sports for Diversification, Barron’s (Jan. 2, 2024),

[19] Ben Fischer, Explaining the Caution on Private Equity, Sports Business Journal (Mar. 28, 2024),  

[20] Asli Pelit, In Fading Esports Business, Saudi Money Still Flows, Sportico (Mar. 15, 2024),



  • Takaze Turner

    Takaze A. Turner, a distinguished figure at the intersection of entertainment and law, showcases a profound passion for anime, cinema, and gaming. His academic journey commenced at the Ohio State University, where he excelled in English, earning his degree with cum laude honors. Furthering his legal education, Takaze achieved his Juris Doctor from the University of Missouri School of Law, before embarking on specialized legal studies. He has since attained an LL.M. in Business Law from Florida State University College of Law and an LL.M. in Entertainment Law from the University of Miami School of Law. Currently, he is enhancing his expertise by pursuing an LL.M. in Taxation Law at the same institution. Takaze’s multifaceted legal education, coupled with his deep-rooted interests in entertainment, positions him uniquely within the legal landscape. His academic accomplishments reflect a dedicated pursuit of knowledge across various sectors of law, particularly those intersecting with the business and entertainment industries. At the core of his professional journey is a commitment to understanding and navigating the complex legalities surrounding entertainment and media, ensuring he remains a pivotal figure in legal discussions related to these dynamic fields. His ongoing pursuit of an LL.M. in Taxation Law further exemplifies his dedication to broadening his legal acumen, underscoring his role as a key contributor to the legal community, especially in areas where law meets entertainment and technology.

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